Designers: you’ve tackled novelty animal prints, quirky winter themes, and gathered inspiration from creative hobbies and cocktails alike. Now it’s time to switch gears and take a month to return to the artist’s favorite math class: Geometry. Based on requests from our designer community, surface design trends and popular searches, we’ve carefully selected 5 geometric themes this month. Some are rooted in spiritual practice (mandalas), others we’re used to seeing in nature (hexagons), and there are a few other super fun themes in between that we think you’re going to love.
Mosaic | Results announced: 3/2
Geodesic | Results announced: 3/9
Mandalas | Results announced: 3/16
In Sanskrit, the word “mandala” simply means circle. It is known as a spiritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe. One of the most well known examples is the sand Mandala — a Tibetan Buddhist tradition involving the creation and destruction of mandalas made from colored sand. Entries will be previewed at the fat quarter size: 21″ x 18.” Submissions close March 7, 2017 at 3 p.m. Eastern. Voting begins March 9, 2017. See official rules.
Tangrams | Results announced: 3/23
Hexagons | Results announced: 3/30
From honeycombs to water crystals and basalt columns, examples of hexagons are all around us in nature. Create an original design inspired by this beautifully symmetrical 6-sided polygon. Design must repeat and be entirely new to Spoonflower. Entries will be previewed at the fat quarter size: 21″ x 18.” Submissions close March 21, 2017 at 3 p.m. Eastern. Voting begins March 23, 2017. See official rules.
One Grand Prize Winner each week will receive $200 in Spoondollars. The winner will also receive additional exposure in our email newsletters, professional photography of their printed designs, and social media mentions.
The 2nd place winner will receive $100 in Spoondollars.
The 3rd place winner will receive $50 in Spoondollars.
The rest of the top 10
4th through 10th place winners will receive a $20 Spoondollar credit.
All of the top 25
Each of the top 25 entries, determined as set forth above, not receiving one of the foregoing prizes will be automatically proofed for sale in the Spoonflower Marketplace (approximately a $5 value) (the “Runner Up Prize”) if winners are verified sellers.
What else is changing?
- Beginning with the March design challenges, eligible submissions will no longer be restricted to designs not previously published on the web. Designs must still be brand new to Spoonflower (whether public or private) but we will no longer stipulate that the design may not appear on any other platforms online.
- Voting for contests will now close on Tuesday of each week at 3 p.m. EST, instead of Wednesdays at 3 p.m.
Good luck, designers! We can’t wait to see what you come up with! See the current top 10 winners.
Below please find the rules for participating in our Design Challenge.
- Log in to Spoonflower. If you don’t have an account, create one.
- Go to your design library. If you don’t yet have any designs, upload the design you wish to enter.
- On your design library page, pull down the Action menu underneath the design you wish to enter in the contest, then select the contest you wish to enter under Enter in Contest.
- Choose the layout option for your design, then click the button that reads “Enter Contest”. If you wish to change the size/dpi of your design, you can do so using the edit option on this page.
- Be sure to wait until your entry preview fully loads, with a message confirming your contest entry, before you leave the page.
- If you decide to enter a different design or make changes, you can withdraw a design by following the same steps, then entering a new design.
- You can only have one design active in the contest at a time. Once the entry period closes, we will ‘freeze’ the submitted designs. ****If you update your design after this point, you will break the image thumbnail and voters will not be able to see your design.
Themed Design Challenge Rules (updated 10/25/2016)
- Official rules may change depending on the contest, and will always be updated on this page as they become available.
Overview. The general idea behind our Design Challenge is that each week members of the Spoonflower community choose to submit designs and we put them up for voting to determine the Design Challenge. Designs can be entered by the designer via our entry process, but each month the winning fabric is selected by community voting. The winning fabric is then promoted through our weekly email, blog, etc. as a fabric for sale. In addition to earning up to 15% on any fabric sold, the winning designer receives a unique prize that will be determined by the design challenge partners and Spoonflower.
Voting. Each week we will take fabric designs submitted by their creators to the contest and open them to voting from the community. The design with the most votes is declared the winner unless stated otherwise. One vote per person is counted. Duplicate votes are removed automatically from the totals. The full results of voting are generally posted on the blog on the day the winner is announced.
Prize. Prizes will vary based on our contest. If you receive Spoondollar credit for winning, please note that this cannot be redeemed for cash. This has no effect on the commission you earn from sales of your winning fabric through our efforts to promote the contest.
If you enter your design, we may or may not offer it to the community for possible selection as the Design Challenge. The best motivation for submitting a design is the chance to share your work with an amazing community of your peers. Please note that all submitted designs must be original and comply with the Spoonflower Terms of Service.
As of July 7, 2011, we began making all ten of the top ten designs in each competition available for sale. By entering the contest, you agree that if your design is voted in the top 10 and is marked for sale that you agree to be bound by the terms of the Seller’s Agreement and become a verified seller. Designs must remain for sale for one week after the top ten designs are announced. Designers are free to change the for-sale status of their own designs at any time after that week. Please note that designs will remain visible in our past contest archive. Should you change the for-sale status of your design, please keep the design public to keep our archive complete.
Designers who sell designs via Spoonflower are required to supply tax information by filling out a W-8BEN or a W-9 form. Spoonflower will make all top ten designs for sale on the day that the contest standing is announced. If you have not completed your tax information at this time, we will automatically select the option to withhold 30% of the Spoondollars you make from sales for tax purposes.
You can complete your tax information at any point. Once tax information is supplied, we will no longer withhold your Spoondollars. Please find instructions for completing your tax information here.
- All submitted designs must be your own (you cannot nominate other people’s designs or use designs based upon other people’s work)
- Designs must already be in your Spoonflower account. To have a Spoonflower account, you have to have registered on the site and uploaded a design. Doing so is free, by the way.
- Designs in the contests must be public (to edit which of your designs are public, visit the Designs page in your Spoonflower account.). Please submit no more than one design for each contest. Thanks!
While we do not require that a design submitted to the contest have been purchased first (by the designer), please consider that it’s a good idea to at least see for yourself what your design looks like on fabric before entering it in a public contest. Swatches are only $5!
What if I don’t want my design to be purchased by other people? We will never sell or offer for voting any design without explicit permission from its creator. Making your design public on Spoonflower does NOT mean that it will appear in a Design Challenge. In order to appear in the contest you must specifically submit a design using the process described above. Note that the top ten designs in each contest will be made available for sale.
Can I submit more than one design? Please submit no more than one design for each themed contest.
Am I giving up copyright of my design by entering it? You are not giving up ownership of your design, but by entering your design in the contest you give us the non-exclusive right to make it available for sale in the Spoonflower marketplace for no less than a week per the usual terms of the Spoonflower marketplace, which give you up to 15% commission on retail sales. You will always be credited for your design and you are free to continue to sell it on your own now and in the future. After a week, you are also free to remove your winning design from the marketplace.
Please always feel free to let us know what you think by emailing us.
- Ditsy Mistletoe, December 15, 2016
- Snow Day
- Spoonflower T-shirt Challenge
- Alpine Chalet
- Poinsettia Gift Tags, November 10th, 2016
- Lace Gift Wrap, November 3, 2016
- 2017 Tea Towel Calendars, October 28, 2016
- Home is Where the Heart Is, October 21, 2016
- Grandma’s Kitchen, October 14, 2016
- Prohibition Cocktails, October 6, 2016
- Headbands of Hope “Dreamers” September 2016
- Commonthread “Vintage Christmas” August 2016
- Betabrand “Double Take” July 2016
- Storypatches “Family Tree”, June 2016
- BucketFeet “Oceans”, May 2016
- Sprout Patterns Japanese Garden, April 28, 2016
- 2016 Spoonflower Staff Challenge, March 30, 2016
- SpoonChallenge, Watercolor, March, 23rd, 2016
- Love is in the Air, February 25th, 2016
- Limited Color Palette: Gray, Cream, Cucumber and Peach, February 18th, 2016
- Interspecies Animal Friendships, February 11th, 2016
- 80s Hairstyles, February 4th, 2016
- Year of the Monkey, January 27th, 2016
- Piñatas, January 20th, 2016
- Rock and Roll, January 13th, 2016
- Windows, January 6th, 2016
- New Year Traditions, December 30th, 2015
- Knitting, December 16th, 2015
- Holiday Gift Bag, December 9th, 2015
- Family Portraits, December 2nd, 2015
- Moon Phases, November 18th, 2015
- Fitness. November 3rd, 2015
- 2016 Tea Towel Calendars. October 27th, 2015
- Post-apocolyptic Toile. October 20th, 2015
- Micro-organisms. October 13th, 2015
- Fabric8. October 1st, 2015
- Cephalopods. September 29, 2015
- Pop Art Cookies. September 22, 2015
- State Fair. September 15, 2015
- Ditsy Lizards. September 8, 2015
- 90s Nostalgia. September 1, 2015
- Fabric8 Finalists. August 25, 2015
- Hit the Books. August 18, 2015
- Butterfly Coordinates. August 15, 2015
- After School Snacks. Closed August 6, 2015
- Goats. Closed July 30, 2015
- National Parks. Closed July 23, 2015
- Take Me Out to the Ball Game. Closed July 16, 2015
- What’s In Your Bag? Closed July 9, 2015
- Llamas. Closed July 2, 2015
- Lemonade. Closed June 25, 2015
- Staff Challenge. Closed June 18, 2015
- Hedgehogs. Closed June 11, 2015
- Sandcastles. Closed June 4, 2015
- Watercolor Power Tools. Closed May 28, 2015
- Mermaids. Closed May 21, 2015
- Pickles. Closed May 14, 2015
- Woodshop. Closed May 7, 2015.
- Floral Border Print. Closed April 30, 2015.
- Bees. Closed April 23, 2015.
- Creativebug. Closed April 16, 2015.
- Islands. Closed April 9, 2015.
- Flying Machines. Closed April 2, 2015.
- Southwest Baby Bedding. Closed March 25, 2015
- Beagles. Closed March 18, 2015.
- Spoons. Closed March 11, 2015.
- Coral, Mint, Black and White. Closed March 4, 2015.
- Cubist Cats. Closed Feb. 25, 2015.
- Mythical Creature Plushie Pattern Design. Closed Feb. 18, 2015.
- Ditsy Sheep. Closed Feb. 11, 2015.
- Steampunk Valentine. Closed Feb. 4, 2015.
- Rockets. Closed Jan. 28, 2015.
- Groundhogs. Closed Jan. 21, 2015.
- Australian Cities. Closed Jan. 14, 2015.
- Penguin. Closed Jan. 7, 2015.
- Math. Closed Jan. 1, 2015.
- Winter Toile. Closed Dec. 2, 2014.
- Kittens in Mittens. Closed Nov. 26, 2014.
- Thermoses. Closed Nov. 19, 2014.
- Calligraphy (w/ UPPERCASE Magazine). Closed Nov. 12, 2014.
- Ornament Gift Wrap. Closed Nov. 5, 2014.
- 2014 Tea Towel Calender. Closed Oct. 28, 2014.
- Calaveras. Closed Oct. 21, 2014.
- Clocks and Timepieces. Closed Oct 14, 2014.
- Umbrellas. Closed Oct 7, 2014.
- Ballet. Closed September 30, 2014.
- Tables and Chairs. Closed September 23, 2014.
- Cat Damask. Closed September 16, 2014.
- Marching Band. Closed September 9, 2014.
- Library. Closed September 2, 2014.
- Your Neighborhood. Closed August 26, 2014.
- Beetles. Closed August 21, 2014.
- Hiking. Closed August 14, 2014.
- Backpacks. Closed Aug 7, 2014.
- Tennis. Closed July 29, 2014.
- Herb Garden. Closed July 22, 2014.
- Fabric8 Finals. Closed July 14, 2014.
- Rhinos. Closed July 8th, 2014.
- Fishing Lures. Closed July 1st, 2014.
- Sewing Notions. Closed June 24th, 2014.
- Farming. Closed June 17th, 2014.
- Fabric8. Closed June 3rd, 2014.
- Surfing. Closed June 3rd, 2014.
- Beards and Mustaches. Closed May 27th, 2014.
- Utensils. Closed May 20th, 2014.
- Crayon-Drawn Monsters. Closed May 13th, 2014.
- Terrariums. Closed May 6th, 2014.
- Mom’s Recipe Tea Towels. Closed April 29th, 2014.
- Floral Coloring Book Wallpaper. Closed April 22nd, 2014.
- Earth Day Cut & Sew Bag. Closed April 15th, 2014.
- Lilies. Closed on April 8th, 2014.
- Whales. Closed on April 1st, 2014.
- Wellies & Galoshes. Closed on March 18th, 2014.
- Science Fair. Closed on March 11th, 2014.
- 2014 Staff Design Challenge. Closed on March 4th, 2014.
- Bedtime. Closed on February 25th, 2014.
- Women’s Day Toile. Closed on February 18th, 2014.
- Geodes and Gemstones. Closed on February 11th, 2014.
- History of Jazz. Closed on February 4th, 2014.
- Anti-Valentine’s Day Cross Stitch. Closed on January 28th, 2014.
- Chinese Paper Cut. Closed on January 21st, 2014.
- Great Barrier Reef. Closed on January 14th, 2014.
- Magic Show. Closed on January 7th, 2014.
- Spring Floral Cheater Quilt Block. Closed on December 31st, 2013.
- Hand-Lettered New Year’s Resolutions. Closed on December 24th, 2013.
- Cut & Sew Party Hats. Closed on December 17th, 2013.
- Retro Skiing. Closed on December 10th, 2013.
- Ugly Sweaters. Closed on December 3rd, 2013.
- 1-Yard Tree Wallhanging. Closed on November 26th, 2013.
- Mittens Gift Wrap. Closed on November 19th, 2013.
- Fall Leaves. Closed on November 12th, 2013.
- Film Noir. Closed on November 5th, 2013.
- 2014 Tea Towel Calendars. Closed on October 29th, 2013.
- Ghosts. Closed on October 22st, 2013.
- 1-Yard Costume. Closed on October 15th, 2013.
- Pies. Closed on October 8th, 2013.
- Teens Inspired By Stella. Closed on October 1st, 2013.
- Constellations. Closed on September 24th, 2013.
- Small Scale Geometric Print For Shoes. Closed on September 17th, 2013.
- Kuler Spaces. Closed on September 10th, 2013.
- Dinosaurs. Closed on September 3rd, 2013.
- Dim Sum. Closed on August 27th, 2013.
- Pencil Case Cut and Sew. Closed on August 20th, 2013.
- Fashion. Closed on August 13th, 2013.
- Fireflies. Closed on August 6th, 2013.
- 8-Bit Fit with Betabrand. Closed on July 30th, 2013.
- Highways & Byways. Closed on July 23, 2013.
- Ditsy Crickets. Closed on July 16, 2013.
- Horses. Closed on July 9, 2013.
- Picnics. Closed on July 2, 2013.
- Citrus Fruits. Closed on June 24, 2013.
- Midsummer Night’s Dream. Closed on June 17, 2013.
- Farmers’ Market. Closed on June 11, 2013.
- Frogs. Closed on May 28, 2013.
- Mod Wallpaper. Closed on May 21, 2013.
- Birthdays. Closed on April 30, 2013.
- Sailing (palette-restricted). Closed on April 23, 2013.
- Pop Art Chickens. Closed on April 16, 2013.
- Gardening Tools. Closed on April 9, 2013.
- Baby Animals. Closed on April 2, 2013.
- Living In A Jane Austen Novel. Closed March 26, 2013.
- Painted Eggs. Closed March 19, 2013.
- 2013 Staff Challenge. Closed March 12, 2013.
- Girl Power. Closed March 5, 2013.
- Lion-Lamb. Closed Feb. 26, 2013.
- Critter Pillow Slip Cut & Sew. Closed. Feb. 19, 2013.
- African-Inspired. Closed Feb. 12, 2013.
- Love Letters. Closed Feb. 5, 2013.
- Mardi Gras. Closed Jan. 29, 2013.
- Australian Animals. Closed Jan. 22, 1013.
- Murder-Mystery Toile. Closed Jan. 15, 2013.
- Zodiac. Closed Jan. 8, 2013.
- Year of the Snake. Closed Jan. 1, 2013.
- Snowflakes. Closed Dec. 18, 2012.
- Sweets. Closed Dec. 11, 2012.
- Gift Tags. Closed Dec. 4, 2012.
- Under the Sea: One-Yard Wonders. Closed Nov. 27, 2012.
- Nasher-Matisse. Closed Nov. 20, 2012.
- Flights Of Fancy. Closed Nov. 13, 2012.
- Holiday Cocktail Napkins. Closed Nov 6, 2012.
- Be My Hero Contest. Closed Oct 30, 2012.
- Arrows. Closed on October 23, 2012.
- 2013 Tea Towel Calendars. Closed on October 16, 2012.
- Creepy Crawlies Closed on October 9, 2012.
- Zombie Plush Toy Patterns. Closed on October 2, 2012.
- Eighties Embroidery Patterns. Closed on September 25, 2012.
- Earth Science. Closed on September 18, 2012.
- Donkeys & Elephants. Closed on September 11, 2012.
- Typewriters. Closed on September 4, 2012.
- Zig-Zag Cheater Quilt. Closed on August 28, 2012.
- School Supplies. Closed on August 21, 2012.
- Camping. Closed on August 14, 2012.
- Craft Party Cut & Sew. Closed on August 7, 2012.
- Aviation. Closed on July 31, 2012.
- Olympic Celebration. Closed on July 24, 2012.
- Mid-century Cocktail Dress Print. Closed on July 17, 2012.
- Paper Collage Cakes. Closed on July 10, 2012.
- Pomegranates. Closed on July 3rd, 2012.
- Stars & Stripes. Closed on June 26, 2012.
- Extinct Animals. Closed on June 19, 2012.
- Geometric Shapes (palette-limited). Closed on June 5, 2012.
- Family Crest. Closed on May 29, 2012.
- Motorcycles. Closed on May 22, 2012.
- Hand-Drawn. Closed May 15, 2012.
- Retro-Kitchen (palette-restricted). Entries closed May 8, 2012.
- What’s the New Owl? Closed April 24, 2012.
- Hat Patterns. Closed April 17, 2012.
- Sewing Celebration. Closed April 10, 2012.
- Book Love. Closed April 3, 2012.
- 1-Yard Bag Patterns. Closed Mar. 27, 2012.
- Urban Sightings. Closed Mar. 20, 2012.
- Staff Challenge Contest (2012). Closed Mar. 13, 2012.
- Robot Cheater QuiltClosed Mar. 6, 2012.
- Your Town Toile de JouyClosed Feb. 28, 2012.
- BicyclesClosed Feb. 21, 2012.
- JellyfishClosed Feb. 14, 2012.
- Ditsy Sea CreaturesClosed Feb. 7, 2012 [ a definition]
- Art DecoClosed Jan. 31, 2012.
- Graffiti / Street ArtClosed Jan. 24, 2012.
- Outdated Technology. Closed Jan. 17, 2012.
- Cityscapes. Closed Jan. 10, 2012.
- Coordinates. Closed Jan. 3, 2012.
- Recipes. Closed Dec. 27, 2011.
- Evergreens (4-color). Closed Dec. 20.
- Bells. Closed Dec. 13,2011.
- Cloth Baby Books. Closed Dec. 6, 2011.
- Feathers. Closed Nov 29, 2011.
- Kites. Closed Nov. 22, 2011.
- Advent Calendar Kits. Closed Nov. 15, 2011.
- Tea towel calendar contest. Closed Nov. 8, 2011.
- Military. Closed on Nov. 1, 2011.
- Cameos. Closed on Oct. 25, 2011.
- Hanging Ornament Patterns. Closed on Oct. 18, 2011.
- Lucha Libre Mask Pattern. Closed Oct. 11, 2011.
- Root Vegetable. Closed Oct. 4, 2011.
- Ditsy Prints. Closed Sept. 27, 2011.
- Jack O’ Lantern Plushie Pattern. Closed Sept. 20, 2011.
- Autumn (3-colors). Closed September 13, 2011.
- Birds (palette-limited). Closed September 6, 2011.
- Bowling. Closed August 30, 2011.
- Plushie Pattern. Closed August 23, 2011.
- Hawaiian Cheater Quilt. Closed August 16, 2011.
- Circus. Closed August 9, 2011.
- Sharks. Closed on August 2, 2011.
- Coffee. Closed on July 26, 2011.
- Roller Derby. Closed on July 19, 2011.
- One-Yard Skirt Pattern. Closed on July 12, 2011.
- Butterflies (palette-limited). Closed on July 5, 2011.
- Fireworks. Closed on June 28, 2011.
- Kids’ Contest (12 & under). Closed on June 21, 2011.
- Puzzles. Entries closed June 14, 2011.
- 18″ cloth napkin pattern: crayons. Entries closed June 7, 2011.
- Fishing. Entries closed May 31, 2011.
- Imaginary Animals. Entries closed May 24, 2011.
- Folk Tales. Entries closed May 17, 2011.
- Ice Cream. Entries closed May 10, 2011.
- Black & White. Entries closed May 3, 2011.
- Project Selvage. (www.ProjectSelvage.com) Entries closed March 24th, 2011. Voting for the final round opened on April 28th and ended on May 4th.
- Poetry. Entries closed on April 19, 2011.
- Alphabet. Entries closed on April 12, 2011.
- Rain. Entries closed April 1, 2011.
- Maps. Entries closed March 22, 2011.
- Squid. Entries closed March 15, 2011.
- Leprechauns. Entries closed March 8, 2011.
- Paisley. Entries closed March 1, 2011.
- Breakfast. Entries closed Feb. 22, 2011.
- Pointillism. Entries closed on Tuesday, Feb. 15th, 2011.
- Year Of the Rabbit. Voting ended on Wed., Feb. 16th.
- Spoonflower Staff Contest. Voting closed on Wednesday, February 9, 2011
- Jokers & Fools. Entries closed on Jan. 25, 2011.
- Civil Rights Toile de Jouy. Entries closed on Jan. 18, 2011.
- Rococo. Entries closed on Jan. 11, 2011.
- Large Scale Botanicals (palette-restricted). Entries closed on Jan. 4, 2011.
- Bunting. Entries closed on Dec. 28, 2010.
- Cats. Entries closed on Dec. 21, 2010.
- Dogs. Entries closed on Dec. 14, 2010.
- Time Travel. Entries closed on Dec. 7, 2010.
- 12 Days of Christmas. Entries closed on Nov. 30, 2010.
- Candles. Entries closed on Nov. 23, 2010.
- Christmas Stocking Patterns. Entries closed on Nov. 16, 2010.
- Celebrity Fabric Design Smackdown. Entries closed on Nov. 9, 2010.
- 2011 Tea-Towel Calendars. Entries closed on Nov. 2, 2010.
- 18″ Doll Clothes. Entries closed on Oct. 19, 2010.
- Scanned Nature Items. Entries closed on Oct. 12, 2010.
- Vampires. Entries closed on October 5, 2010.
- Gourds. Entries closed on September 28, 2010.
- Kawaii. Entries closed on September 21, 2010.
- Halloween masks. Entries closed on September 14, 2010.
- Border prints. Entries closed on September 7, 2010.
- Carousels. Entries closed on Aug. 31, 2010.
- Tractors. Entries closed on Aug. 24, 2010.
- Windows & Doors. Entries closed on Aug. 17, 2010.
- Surrealist Fruit. Entries closed on Aug. 10, 2010.
- Camouflage. Entries closed on Aug. 3, 2010.
- Desert. Entries closed on July 27, 2010.
- Paper Collage. Entries closed on July 20, 2010.
- Summer Flowers (palette-restricted). Entries closed on July 13, 2010.
- Travel. Entries closed on July 6, 2010.
- Cheater Quilts. Entries closed on June 29, 2010.
- Nautical. Entries closed on June 22, 1010.
- Apron Patterns. Entries closed on June 15, 2010.
- Robots! Entries closed Tuesday, June 8, 2010.
- Medieval. Entries closed June 1, 2010.
- Tiki. Entries closed May 25, 2010.
- Fifties (palette-restricted). Entries closed Tuesday, May 18, 2010.
- Puppets. Entries closed Tuesday, May 11, 2010.
- Cocktails. Entries closed Tuesday, May 4, 2010.
- Musical Instruments. Entries closed on April 27.
- Shoes. Entries closed on April 20.
- Tessellations. Entries closed on Tuesday, April 13.
- Water Colors. Entries closed on April 6, 2010.
- Gardens. Entries close on Tuesday, March 30, 2010, at noon EST. CLOSED.
- Daffodils. Entries close on Tuesday, March 23, 2010, at noon EST. CLOSED.
- Art Nouveau. [palette-restricted] Entries closed on March 16, 2010. CLOSED.
- Tattoos. Entries close on Tuesday, March 9, 2010, at noon EST. CLOSED.
- Spoonflower/Boba Baby Carrier Contest:CONTEST DETAILS HERE. CLOSED.